A project of the Center for Community Change

Resources on Economic Impact of Migrants- National Immigration Forum


 We love to share great resources out there for immigrant rights advocates. Though some of you may already be using it, the National Immigration Forum offers a round up of great materials on diverse topics in the Community Resource Bank. These are particularly important as we are all trying to tell our congress people WHY they should reform our immigration system for the best, and HOW we think those reforms should look.

Below, I’ve included many of their resources on Immigrants and the Economy- Hope you find these useful, and if you know of others, please do share them!

Immigrants and the Economy Resources

Economy – (Misc)

June 2, 2004. Do Visa Delays Hurt U.S. Business?, prepared by The Santangelo Group. This analysis, based on a survey of 734 members of eight leading international trade associations estimates that U.S. companies suffered $30.7 billion in financial impact between July 2002 and March 2004 due to delays/denials in the processing of business visas.

Economy – “Cost/Benefit”

June 29, 2006. The Debate over Immigration’s Impact on U.S. Workers and the Economy, Stuart Anderson, National Foundation for American Policy (prepared for the Merage Foundation for the American Dream). This paper finds that immigrants increase specialization in the economy, enhance the nation’s productive capacity, and aid innovation in the United States. The best evidence suggests that immigrants improve their own lot and that of their children by coming to America and exert little adverse impact on natives.

June 19, 2006. Open Letter on Immigration. Letter signed by more than 500 economists who state that [w]hile a small percentage of native-born Americans may be harmed by immigration, vastly more Americans benefit from the contributions that immigrants make to our economy.

January 3, 2006. The Economic Impact of the Hispanic Population on the State of North Carolina, John D. Kasarda and James H .Johnson, Jr., Frank Hawkins Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise, Kenan-Flagler . ..ss..”Business School, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The study assessed the economic impact of the state’s growing Hispanic population and identified potential business opportunities provided by this fast-growing market. North Carolina’s rapidly growing Hispanic population contributes more than $9 billion to the state’s economy through its purchases and taxes. The study found that Hispanics annually contribute about $756 million in taxes (direct and indirect) while costing the state budget about $817 million annually for K-12 education ($467 million), health care ($299 million), and corrections ($51 million) for a net cost to the state of about $61 million. However, the net cost to the state budget must be seen in the broader context of the aggregate benefits Hispanics bring to the state’s economy.

September 2005. The Impact of Immigration on the California Economy, California Regional Economies Project, Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy. This report examines the impact of immigration on the California economy. Existing research is summarized, and references are provided. It makes no policy recommendations. Slide show summary.

September 2000. Estimating the Economic Impact of the Latino Workforce in South Central Minnesota, by James Kielkopf, Center for Rural Policy and Development, Minnesota State University, Mankato. This study found that the Latino workforce in nine counties in South Central Minnesota added $484 million annually to the regional economy. 7,800 addional jobs were created for non-latinos, and Latino workers paid approximately $72 million more in taxes than they receive in government benefits. Agricultural workers were not included in the study.

Economy – Entrepreneurs

January 4, 2007America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Vivek Wadhwa et. al., University of California, Berkeley and Duke University. This survey found that immigrant entrepreneurs founded 25.3 percent of the U.S. engineering and technology companies established in the past decade, and foreign nationals contributed to an estimated 24.2 percent of international patent applications in 2006.

November 15, 2006. American Made: The Impact of Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Professionals on U.S. Competitiveness, by Stuart Anderson, National Foundation for American Policy, and Michaela Platzer, Content First. The purpose of the study is to provide an objective overview of the impact of immigrant entrepreneurs and professionals on the U.S. economy.

May 23, 2006 Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity National Report 1996-2005, Robert W. Fairlie, for the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Though their rate of entrepreneurial activity declined from 0.41 percent in 2004 to 0.35 in 2005, they continued to have a substantially higher than native-born individuals (.28 percent).

April 2005. Self-employed immigrants: An analysis of recent data, by Maude Toussaint-Comeau, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. This article identifies the factors that influence the self-employment decision for U.S. immigrants, including human capital, years in the U.S., geographic concentration, and labor market characteristics. The results from this analysis show that, on average, the self-employment rate of immigrants is somewhat higher than that of native born.

January 2005. Today’s Immigrant Woman Entrepreneur, by Susan C. Pearce, Ph.D, for the Immigration Policy Center’s Immigration Policy In Focus. This study examines the rise of immigrant women entrepreneurs and profiles them as a group using data from the 2000 Decennial Census and other sources.

Economy – Financial Access

October 2004. Financial Access for Immigrants: Learning from Diverse Perspectives, Policy Brief: Conference Report # 19, by Audrey Singer and Anna Paulson, The Brookings Institution. This Policy Brief highlights the research findings that were presented at a conference that included presentations from scholars and practitioners who discussed recent research on the financial practices of immigrants as well as the practical experiences of for-profit and nonprofit institutions working to provide financial services to the immigrant community.

Economy – Labor Market/Labor Force

March 6, 2007. Trends in the Low-Wage Immigrant Labor Force, 2000–2005, Randy Capps, Karina Fortuny, The Urban Institute and Michael Fix, Migration Policy Institute. Between 2000 and 2005, the percentage of the low-wage worker population that was immigrant increased. The number of low-wage and low-skilled native-born workers fell between 2000 and 2005, due to improvements in their educational attainment but also due to decreasing labor force participation.

February 27, 2007. How Immigrants Affect California Employment and Wages, by Giovanni Peri, in California Counts, Public Policy Institute of California. This paper examines the effects of the arrival of immigrants between 1960 and 2004 on the employment, population, and wages of U.S. natives in California. It finds that there is no evidence that the influx of immigrants over the past four decades has worsened the employment opportunities of natives with similar education and experience; here is no association between the influx of immigrants and the out-migration of natives within the same education and age group; immigration induced a 4 percent real wage increase for the average native worker between 1990 and 2004; and recent immigrants did lower the wages of previous immigrants.

October 2006. Rethinking the Effects of Immigration on Wages: New Data and Analysis from 1990-2004, by Giovanni Peri, Ph., in Immigration Policy In Focus, Immigration Policy Center. Immigrants and natives tend to differ in their educational attainment, skill sets, and occupations, and they perform jobs that often are interdependent. Additionally, an increase in the labor force stimulates investment. When these two factors are included in the analysis of immigration and wages, immigration has a positive effect on the wages of most native-born workers.

September 27, 2006. Latino Labor Report 2006: Strong Gains in Employment, Rakesh Kochhar, Pew Hispanic Center. This report discusses employment statistics for foreign-born and native-born hispanics, as well as for other groups, in the second quarter of 2006. It compares the employment situation for these groups compared to the second quarter of 2005. Foreign-born workers accounted for 50% of the growth in the labor force from the second quarter of 2005 to the second quarter of 2006. The healthy job market for Latinos has been driven by the construction industry. The unemployment rate for foreign-born workers is nearly one percentage point lower than for native-born workers (3.8% vs. 4.7%). Unemployment for native-born blacks is higher, more than 9 percent.

August 16, 2006. The Growth and Reach of Immigration, Rob Paral for the Immigration Policy Center. New data released by the Census Bureau on August 15 underscore the extent to which immigration continues to fuel the expansion of the U.S. labor force. Immigrants already have become an indispensable part of the U.S. labor force.

August 10, 2006. Growth in the Foreign-Born Workforce and Employment of the Native Born, by Rakesh Kochhar, Pew Hispanic Center. Rapid increases in the foreign-born population at the state level are not associated with negative effects on the employment of native-born workers. An analysis of the relationship between growth in the foreign-born population and the employment outcomes of native-born workers revealed wide variations but no consistent pattern across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The size of the foreign-born workforce, its relative youth and low education level are also unrelated to the employment prospects for native workers.

August 1, 2006. BUILDING A COMPETITIVE WORKFORCE: Immigration and the U.S. Manufacturing Sector, by David L. Bartlett, Immigration Policy In Focus, Immigration Policy Center. Shortages of skilled labor constitute the foremost challenge confronting U.S. manufacturers. Demand for professionals with university degrees is rising as manufacturing becomes increasingly high tech. Bridging the gap between the supply and demand for skilled workers requires new investments in the U.S. educational system and the formulation of immigration policies that respond to the labor needs of the U.S. economy.

July 2006. Immigrants and Labor Force Trends: The Future, Past, and Present, by B. Lindsay Lowell et. al. for the Migration Policy Institute. Immigrants will form an increasing share of the workforce over the next thirty years. Foreign-born workers are well-represented in occupations predicted to grow most over the next decades, suggesting such workers will remain in demand. Immigrants are also expected to assist in addressing the needs of an aging population by providing services to the elderly, altering worker-to-retiree ratios, and providing tax revenues that support programs for the aged.

July 2006. The Impact of Immigration on Native Workers: A Fresh Look at the Evidence, Julie Murray et. al., Migration Policy Institute. Despite the addition of recent research to an already large body of literature, the “competition question” is still up for debate. However, the “competition question,” for all of its importance, should be viewed as only one of many ways to look at a complex picture of immigrants, their contributions, and their costs in the United States.

April 14, 2006. Foreign-Born Workers: Labor Force Characteristics in 2005, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor. Details of the demographic and labor force characteristics of the foreign-born.

March 2006. H- 1b Professionals And Wages: Setting The Record Straight, National Foundation for American Policy. Critics assert the only reason a U.S. employer would ever hire someone on an H-1B visa is because he or she will work cheaper than Americans. The story that a veritable conspiracy exists in America to hire foreign-born professionals so they can work cheaply is unsupported by the evidence.

March 13, 2006. IMMIGRANTS, SKILLS, AND WAGES: Measuring the Economic Gains from Immigration, by Giovanni Peri, Ph.D. for the Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation. Foreign-born workers do not substitute perfectly for, and therefore do not compete with, most native-born workers. Rather, the complementary nature of the skills, occupations, and abilities of foreign-born workers increases the productivity of natives, stimulates investment, and enhances the choices available to consumers.

November 15, 2005. Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide, by Rob Paral, Dan Siciliano, Benjamin Johnson, Walter Ewing, and Michael Chittenden, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation. U.S. economic growth projections for 2002–2012 are predicated on a growing supply of workers that likely will not be found in the native-born population alone. Absent a change in current immigration laws, undocumented immigrants will likely account for 1 in 8 new workers between 2002 and 2012. Rather than creating an orderly process by which needed workers enter the United States from abroad, static limits on employment-based immigration have diverted labor migration to undocumented channels or clogged the family-based immigration system.

November 10, 2005. The Role of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market, Congressional Budget Office. The paper focuses on the role of immigrants in the labor market, including the skills they bring to that market; the types of jobs they hold; and their compensation. It also includes a review of literature on their impact on the native-born workforce, and the implications for the future as the baby boom generation exits the workforce.

August 2005. Rethinking the Gains from Immigration: Theory and Evidence from the U.S., Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, (Universita di Bologna and CEPR) and Giovanni Peri, (UC Davis and NBER). This paper examines the effect of immigration on the labor market. Because immigrants and the native-born have different skills, they play different roles in the labor market. The authors found that, for all but high-school dropouts (now only 9 percent of the U.S. population) immigration had a positive effect on the wages of the native born.

May 4, 2005. The Economics of Necessity: Economic Report of the President Underscores the Importance of Immigration, Walter A. Ewing, Immigration Policy Center American Immigration Law Foundation. Although immigration is crucial to the growth of the U.S. labor force and yields a net fiscal benefit to the U.S. economy, current immigration policies fail to respond to actual labor demand.

May 2, 2005. Latino Labor Report, 2004: More Jobs for New Immigrants but at Lower Wages, by Rakesh Kochhar, PEW Hispanic Center. Hispanic workers enjoyed significant gains in employment in 2004. The vast majority of new jobs for Hispanic workers were in relatively low-skill occupations. In contrast, non-Hispanic workers secured large increases in employment in higher-skill occupations. This polarization contributed to a growing gap in earnings between Hispanic and non-Hispanic workers.

March 30, 2005. Essential Workers: Immigrants are a Needed Supplement to the Native-Born Labor Force, Rob Paral for the Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation. Rational reform of our immigration system is hindered by claims that immigrants steal jobs from the native born and drive down wages for native workers. Yet the notion that every job filled by an immigrant is one less job available for a native-born worker is inherently simplistic and doesnt account for the fact that immigrants create jobs or that unemployed natives and immigrant workers often do not compete for the same jobs.

October 5, 2004. Putting a Cap on Competitiveness: Arbitrary Limits on H-1B Visas Undermine U.S. Science and Engineering, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation. Arbitrary congressional limits on the number of H-1B visas that can be granted annually to highly skilled foreign professionals may undermine the international competitiveness of U.S. science and technology.

September 2004. Moving Ahead or Falling Behind? CALIFORNIA’S FAST-GROWING LATINO WORKFORCE, California Budget Project. The California workforce is steadily becoming more Latino. This report presents evidence that between 1995 and 2003, the inflation-adjusted hourly wage of the typical Latino worker rose faster than that of the typical non-Latino worker. On the other hand, while the Latino/non-Latino wage gap has recently been shrinking, it was substantially wider in 2003 than it was a generation earlier in 1979.

August 18, 2004. Maintaining A Competitive Edge: The Role of the Foreign-Born and U.S. Immigration Policies in Science and Engineering, Rob Paral and Benjamin Johnson, Immigrant Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation. This report examines the prominent role of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the labor force of U.S. corporations, universities, and research centers nationwide. Attracting this talent is a key factor in maintaining the nation’s economic competitiveness and preeminence in science. Despite their vital role, long-standing structural flaws in the U.S. visa system and the unintended consequences of security procedures instituted since September 11, 2001, may be causing an increasing number of scientists and engineers to avoid coming to the United States.

July 23, 2004. Foreign Immigration and the Labor Force of the U.S.: The Contributions of New Foreign Immigration to the Growth of the Nation’s Labor Force and Its Employed Population, 2000 to 2004, prepared by: Andrew Sum, Neeta Fogg, Ishwar Khatiwada, with Sheila Palma, Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University. After making up nearly half of the overall growth in the nation’s labor force during the decade of the 1990s, new immigrants have been responsible for 60 percent of civilian labor force growth between 2000 and 2004 and captured all of the net gains in employment over the past four years. At no other time in history, the report finds, has the U.S. been so dependent on foreign immigrants for our growth in labor force and employment. Given the controversial but policy relevant findings on the immigrant role in U.S. labor markets over the past four years and its adverse consequences for younger and less skilled workers, the study calls for a sustained and high level national policy debate over the future role of immigration in U.S. labor markets. Press Release.

June 16, 2004. Latino Labor Report, First Quarter, 2004: Wage Growth Lags Gains in Employment, Rakesh Kochhar, PEW Hispanic Center. In the 12 months ending March 31, 2004, the economy added a net total of 1.3 million new jobs. Non-citizens captured 378,496 or 28.5 percent of those jobs. Median wages for Latinos have lost ground in comparison with the national median wage.

May 2004. Relinquishing Excellence: Closing the Door to Foreign Professionals Undermines the U.S. Economy, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation. According to a recent National Science Board report, restrictive U.S. visa policies are beginning to close the door to highly skilled foreign professionals who have long helped maintain U.S. preeminence in science and technology.

May 4, 2004. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004, National Science Board. Among the issues discussed in this report are the participation of the foreign born in our science and engineering fields, the increased ability of developing nations to retain their science and engineering talent, and the decrease in the number of foreign born scientists and engineers able to get in to the U.S. after September 11, 2001.

The United States has long benefited from the participation of large numbers of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the Science and Engineering workforce. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census show that in Science and Engineering occupations approximately 17 percent of bachelor’s degree holders, 29 percent of master’s degree holders, and 38 percent of doctorate holders are foreign born. Advanced developing nations have been developing programs designed to retain their highly trained personnel and to even attract people from abroad. These trends have set up the potential for growing competition in the recruitment of foreign talent and for continuing international mobility of firms to low-cost countries with well-trained workforces. Since the terrorist attacks of September 2001, the number of high-skill-related visas issued to students, exchange visitors, and others in 2002 was significantly lower than the number issued in 2001, and it continued to decline in 2003. These data reflect both a drop in applications for all visa classes, except exchange visitors, and higher U.S. Department of State visa refusal rates.

April 2004. Beyond the High-Tech Bubble: The Changing Demand for H-1B Professionals, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation. Contrary to popular myth, H-1B professionals represent only a tiny fraction of the total U.S. labor force and do not crowd out native-born workers in industries that are losing jobs. Rather, H-1B workers fill growing labor needs in a variety of fields that continue to add jobs, such as education and healthcare.

April 2004. Labor Market Numerology: Arbitrary Congressional Limits on Temporary Worker Visas, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation. The current numerical limits on visas for both high-skilled and seasonal workers prevent U.S. businesses from hiring the workers they need, while doing nothing to protect the jobs or wages of native workers. Labor rights are most effectively guaranteed by enforcing labor protections, not by imposing arbitrary numerical caps.

December 2003. Creeping Protectionism: An Analysis of State and Federal Global Sourcing Legislation, by Stuart Anderson, National Foundation for American Policy. State and federal legislation to restrict global sourcing is a growing threat to American competitiveness and U.S. taxpayers. This new form of protectionism threatens to interfere with the technological revolution and international division of labor that have led to new products and services to improve the lives of Americans and others throughout the world.

September 8, 2003. The Global Battle for Talent and People, Stuart Anderson, American Immigration Law Foundation. With current levels of immigration, the U.S. labor force will grow 18.9 percent by 2030, while countries with more restrictive immigration policies such as Japan, Germany and Italy will see their adult working populations decline by 15 percent or more. Immigration is the crucial factor in determining whether the United States labor force will experience growth or become stagnant. This U.S. labor growth, led by immigration, will be a key to economic growth and the funding of health and retirement benefits for baby boomers.

August 14, 2003. The Science and Engineering Workforce: Realizing America’s Potential, by the National Science Board. The future strength of the US Science and Engineering workforce is imperiled by two long-term trends: Global competition for Science and Engineering talent is intensifying, such that the United States may not be able to rely on the international Science and Engineering labor market to fill unmet skill needs, and the number of native-born Science and Engineering graduates entering the workforce is likely to decline unless the Nation intervenes to improve success in educating Science and Engineering students from all demographic groups.

February, 2003. The Impacts of the Recession of 2001 and the Jobless Recovery of 2002 on the Native Born and Immigrant Workforce of the United States, Northeastern University, Center for Labor Market Studies. Prepared by Andrew Sum, Paul Harrington, and Sheila Palma. This study reveals considerable employment gains among immigrants while employment levels of native born workers declined steeply over the past two years. The least well-educated native born workers clearly have borne the brunt of decline in the nation’s labor markets. “A substantial overcrowding has occurred at the bottom of the labor market, where an already existing excess supply of less educated workers is continuing to grow through the rapid growth in the immigrant labor force.” The authors call for an examination of the relationship between the nation’s immigration and labor market policies as little connection currently exists between the two, and current immigration policies do not adjust for changes in cyclical labor market conditions in the national economy. (Release/Summary.)

January 2003. Labor Specialization, Ethnicity, and Metropolitan LaborMarkets, by Franklin D. Wilson, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin. This paper deals with the ways in which certain ethnic groups are under or over-represented in certain employment sectors. It explores the prevailing claim that ethnic affiliation affects the relative concentration of co- ethnic workers and that metropolitan labor markets provide the context within which members of ethnic populations are sorted into various employment sectors based upon various characteristics.

December 2002. Immigrant Workers and the Great American Job Machine (summary), by the Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University. In the decade of the 1990s, new immigrants made up more than half of the growth of the nation’s entire civilian workforce. Among males, new immigrants were responsible for 80 percent of the labor force growth, and within the New England and Middle Atlantic divisions, immigrants generated all of the labor force growth in the 1990s. New immigrants increasingly made up large portions of those who worked in retail, trade, and business, high-tech, personal and professional services. They were found to be employed in large numbers in every major occupational group although they remain under-represented in management and high level sales positions. New immigrants’ impact on private sector job growth was particularly strong, and without their active participation, major shortages in the labor market would have likely cropped up, including many high skilled occupations. The rate of self-employment among all immigrants was only one percentage point lower than among native-born workers. After having spent a decade or more in the U.S., however, foreign-born workers actually become more likely than their native-born counterparts (11.7 percent versus 10.3 percent) to be self-employed. New immigrants were overrepresented in goods producing industries, including construction and manufacturing, industries that employ nearly three of every ten new immigrant workers. Nearly one of every four new immigrant workers also held a professional, management, or technical position in 2000-2001.

September 2002. Mexican Immigrant Workers and the U.S. Economy: An Increasingly Vital Role, American Immigration Law Foundation. This study found that Mexican workers are integral to U.S. economic growth. The portion of Mexican workers in the U.S. workforce doubled during the past decade. Mexican workers are becoming increasingly important in locations throughout the nation not previously known for large immigrant populations. The report also notes that nearly 43 percent of all job openings by 2010 will require only a minimal education, at a time when native-born Americans are obtaining college degrees in record numbers and are unlikely to accept positions requiring minimal education.

Economy – Taxes

May 2006. Civic Contributions: Taxes Paid by Immigrants in the Washington, DC, Metropolitan Area, by Randy Capps, Everett Henderson, The Urban Institute; Jeffrey S. Passel, Pew Hispanic Center; Michael Fix; Migration Policy Institute. Immigrant households in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area paid nearly $10 billion, or about 18 percent of all taxes paid by households in the region ($55 billion), in 1999–2000. Immigrants at that time represented about 18 percent of the total population, so they paid taxes roughly in proportion to their share of the population.

February 6, 2005. The Contribution of Legal Immigration to the Social Security System, by Stuart Anderson, National Foundation for American Policy. Over the next 75 years, new legal immigrants entering the United States will provide a net benefit of $611 billion in present value to America’s Social Security system. Maintaining or increasing current levels of legal immigration significantly aids the Social Security system, while imposing an immigration moratorium or reducing legal immigration would worsen the solvency of Social Security. Appendix 1 – SSA Memorandum Changes in Level of Legal Immigration. Appendix 2 – SSA Memorandum on Effective Taxable Payroll and Immigration.

September 2001. Management Advisory Report: Review of Service Industry Employer with Wage Reporting Problems, Social Security Administration, Office of Inspector General. The Social Security Administration maintains what it calls an “Earnings Suspense File”—an account where the Social Security contributions of those whose names and numbers do not match are deposited. Undoubtedly, some of these are contributions from Americans who made a mistake on their W-4s, but it may be that at least 50% are from hard-working but undocumented immigrants. The report shows a spectacular drop in the Earnings Suspense File at exactly the time that immigrants were legalized through IRCA. The account at the SSA now has about $500 Billion in it.

Economy – Urban Renewal

July 2003. Migrating to Recovery: The Role of Immigration in Urban Renewal, American Immigration Law Foundation. Policymakers in states from Iowa to Utah and in cities from Albuquerque to Boston have realized that immigration is a key source of long-term economic vitality, particularly in urban areas experiencing population loss, shrinking labor pools and growing numbers of retirees. Immigration, if properly cultivated, can be a key ingredient in urban economic development and recovery.

November 2002. A Turning of the Wheel: Attracting new Americans into Baltimore City’s neighborhoods — again. Immigration is the key to reversing Baltimore City’s population decline, by Bruce Morrison and Paul Donnelly in “The Abell Report. With the population of Baltimore falling, along with the loss of industry and a complex of seemingly intractable social problems, a memory of Baltimore’s earlier immigrant experience and its contribution to Baltimore’s glory days are enticing Baltimore City’s leadership to observe carefully how other cities with similar problems have benefited from immigration. This study concludes that: 1) For cities of Baltimore’s size outside the Sun Belt, without immigration population decline is the norm. Moreover, immigration explains all of the growth that does occur. The data strongly indicate that if Baltimore City is to stabilize its population, immigrants are essential. 2) The few comparable cities that have reversed their population declines through immigration did not plan their success. Thus, there are no strategic plans or prospective programs to affirmatively recruit immigrants that Baltimore City can draw upon. The City must pioneer.

Undocumented Immigrants and the Economy

December 2006. UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS IN TEXAS: A Financial Analysis of the Impact to the State Budget and Economy, Carole Keeton Strayhorn, Texas Comptroller. The Texas Comptroller finds that the absence of the estimated 1.4 million undocumented immigrants in Texas in fiscal 2005 would have been a loss to the economy of $17.7 billion. Undocumented immigrants produced $1.58 billion in state revenues, which exceeded the $1.16 billion in state services they received. However, local governments bore the burden of $1.44 billion in uncompensated health care costs and local law enforcement costs not paid for by the state.”

April 13, 2006. The Labor Force Status of Short-Term Unauthorized Workers, Pew Hispanic Center. Estimates of the number of long-term (arrival prior to 2000) and short-term (arrival after 2000) unauthorized migrants employed in various industries and occupations and of their weekly earnings.

April 4, 2006. Replacing the Undocumented Work Force, David A. Jaeger, Center for American Progress. If the undocumented were removed from the labor force, there would be a shortfall of nearly 2.5 million low-skill workers. This would be a major shock to the economy and the industries that employ large numbers of undocumented workers would potentially face shortages of workers. Unemployed native-born Americans would be highly unlikely to fill all of the jobs currently held by undocumented workers.

June 14, 2005. Unauthorized Migrants: Numbers and Characteristics, by Jeffrey S. Passel, Pew Hispanic Center. This report offers a portrait of the undocumented population in unprecedented detail by examining family composition, educational attainment, and income. It also offers extensive data on the employment of unauthorized migrants, mapping their presence in many sectors of the US labor force.

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